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菜单翻译:常见中国菜的英文翻译与技巧

发布人:专业菜单翻译     发布日期:2021-03-11     浏览次数:1971次     返回上一页

一个国家的文化和饮食习惯有着千丝万缕的联系,菜单翻译正是对该国饮食文化的一种传达。看似简短的菜品名称,但要在翻译上要做到信、达、雅”,却真的不是一件易事。尤其在菜单翻译时,若忽略了中西方文化的差异,不仅会吓跑我们的外国客户,更容易引起对中国文化的曲解,闹出贻笑大方的国际笑话。比如,把“麻婆豆腐”译成“Tofu made by woman with freckles (一脸雀斑女人做的豆腐)”,“夫妻肺片”更是译得血腥——“Husband and wife's lung slice (丈夫和妻子的肺片)”......类似这样的菜单翻译不胜枚举。

菜单翻译


事实中,越来越多的外国友人来到中国,多是从中国菜中探索和学习中国文化。所以,中餐菜单翻译已是翻译项目中最常见的项目之一,也是亟待解决翻译质量问题的重要领域之一。下面,我们为大家准备了一些常见中国菜的英文翻译及菜单翻译的相关技巧,希望对大家有所裨益

一、以主料为主,配料或配汁为辅的菜单翻译原则

1. 主料(名称/形状)+with+配料

如:松仁香菇 Chinese Mushrooms with Pine Nuts

2.主料 with /in+汤汁(Sauce)

如:冰梅凉瓜 Bitter Melon in Plum Sauce

二、以烹制方法为主,原料为辅的菜单翻译原则

1.做法(动词过去分词)+主料(名称/形状)

如:拌双耳 Tossed Black and White Fungus

2.做法(动词过去分词)+主料(名称/形状)+配料

如:豌豆辣牛肉 Sautéed Spicy Beef and Green Peas

3.做法(动词过去分词) + 主料(名称/形状)+with /in+汤汁

如:川北凉粉 Tossed Clear Noodles with Chili Sauce

三、以形状、口感为主,原料为辅的菜单翻译原则

1.形状/口感 + 主料

如:玉兔馒头 Rabbit-Shaped Mantou、脆皮鸡 Crispy Chicken

2.做法(动词过去分词)+ 形状/口感 + 主料 + 配料

如:小炒黑山羊 Sautéed Sliced Lamb with Pepper and Parsley

四、以人名、地名为主,原料为辅的菜单翻译原则

1.人名(地名)+ 主料

如:麻婆豆腐 Mapo Tofu (Sautéed Tofu in Hot and Spicy Sauce)

2.做法(动词过去式)+ 主辅料 + 人名/地名 + Style

如:四川辣子鸡 Spicy Chicken, Sichuan Style 北京炸酱面 Noodles with Soy Bean Paste, Beijing Style

五、体现中国餐饮文化,使用汉语拼音命名或音译的菜单翻译原则

1.具有中国特色传统食品,使用汉语拼音。

如:饺子 Jiaozi 包子 Baozi 馒头 Mantou 花卷 Huajuan 烧麦 Shaomai

2.已被国外主要英文字典收录的,使用汉语方言拼写或音译拼写的菜名,仍保留其原拼写方式。

如:豆腐 Tofu 宫保鸡丁 Kung Pao Chicken 馄饨 Wonton

3. 中文菜肴名称无法体现其做法及主配料的,使用汉语拼音,并在后标注英文注释。

如:佛跳墙 Fotiaoqiang (Steamed Abalone with Shark's Fin and Fish Maw in Broth)

锅贴 Guotie (Pan-Fried Dumplings)

窝头 Wotou (Steamed Corn/Black Rice Bun)

蒸饺 Steamed Jiaozi (Steamed Dumplings)

油条 Youtiao (Deep-Fried Dough Sticks)

汤圆 Tangyuan (Glutinous Rice Balls)

粽子 Zongzi (Glutinous Rice Wrapped in Bamboo Leaves)

元宵 Yuanxiao (Glutinous Rice Balls for Lantern Festival)

驴打滚儿 Lǘdagunr (Glutinous Rice Rolls Stuffed with Red Bean Paste)

六、介词inwith在汤汁、配料中的用法

1.如主料是浸在汤汁或配料中时,使用in连接。

如:豉汁牛仔骨 Steamed Beef Ribs in Black Bean Sauce

2.如汤汁或蘸料和主料是分开的,或是后浇在主菜上的,则用with连接。

如:泡椒鸭丝 Shredded Duck with Pickled Peppers



知识拓展——中餐餐单翻译大汇总

一、烹饪方法

中国菜的烹调方法至少有50多种,包括:

Boiling(煮)

Simmering(炖、煨)

Stewing(煲、炖、焖)

Braising(烧),Fying(油炸)

Baking(烘)

Roasting or Broiling(烤)

Steaming(蒸)

Smoking(熏)

Pan-Frying(煎)

二、中国八大菜系

鲁菜 Lu Cuisine (Shandong Cuisine)

川菜 Chuan Cuisine (Sichuan Cuisine)

粤菜 Yue Cuisine (Guangdong Cuisine)

闽菜 Min Cuisine (Fujian Cuisine)

苏菜 Su Cuisine (Jiangsu Cuisine)

浙菜 Zhe Cuisine (Zhejiang Cuisine)

湘菜 Xiang Cuisine (Hunan Cuisine)

徽菜 Hui Cuisine (Anhui Cuisine)

三、常见菜单翻译

1.北京烤鸭 roast Beijing duck

2.辣子鸡丁 saute diced chicken with hot peppers

3.宫爆鸡丁 saute diced chicken with peanuts

4.红烧鲤鱼 braised common carp

5.茄汁虾仁 saute fish slices with bamboo shoots

6.涮羊肉 instant boiled sliced mutton

7.糖醋里脊 pork fillets with sweet & sour sauce

8.炒木须肉 saute shredded pork with eggs & black fungus

9.榨菜肉丝汤 pork with Sichuan cabbage soup

10.生炒肚片 saute fish maw slices

11.回锅肉 saute pork in hot sauce

12.糖醋排骨 saute chops with sweet & sour sauce

13.家常豆腐 fried beancurd with sliced pork & pepper

14.醋溜白菜 saute cabbage&pepper in sweet & sour sauce

15.鱼香茄子 saute eggplant with fish flavor

16. 麻婆豆腐 stewed beancurd with minced pork in pepper sauce

17.韭菜炒蛋 saute leek sprouts & eggs

18.宫保鸡丁Kung Pao Chicken

19.咕噜鸡Sweet & Sour Chicken

20.红烧豆腐Fried Tofu

21.素咕噜肉Vegetarian Sweet and Sour

22.干扁四季豆String Bean Western Style

23.红烧狮子头Stewed Pork Ball in Brown Sauce

四、面食与糕点

1./鸡丝汤面 noodles in soup with pork/chicken

2.担担面 noodles with sesame paste & pea sprouts

3.龙须面 saute fine noodles with shredded chicken

4.炒米线 saute rice noodles with green bean sprouts

5.杂酱面 soy beans in minced meat & noodles

6.酸辣汤面 noodles in sour pungent soup

7.排骨面 soup noodles with pork rib

8.阳春面 noodles in superior soup

9.凉拌面 cool braised noodles

10.肉包 steamed meat dumpling

11.豆沙包 bean paste dumpling

12.水晶包 stuffed bread with lard & sugar

13.叉烧包 stuffed bread with roast pork

14.水煎包 lightly fried Chinese bread

15.花卷 twist

16.小笼包 steamed small meat dumpling in basket

17.馄饨 ravioli;hun-tun

18.大饼 bannock

19.油条 twisted cruller

20.豆腐脑 beancurd jelly

21.茶叶蛋 egg boiled with salt & tea

22.八宝饭 steamed glutinous rice with eight treasures

23.葱油饼 green onion pie

24.黄桥烧饼 crisp short cakes

25.月饼 moon cake

26.酒酿 sweet ferment rice

27.麻花 fried dough twist

28.元宵 rice glue ball

五、中式早点

烧饼 Clay oven rolls

油条 Fried bread stick

韭菜盒 Fried leek dumplings

水饺 Boiled dumplings

蒸饺 Steamed dumplings

馒头 Steamed buns

割包 Steamed sandwich

饭团 Rice and vegetable roll

蛋饼 Egg cakes

皮蛋 100-year egg

咸鸭蛋 Salted duck egg

豆浆 Soybean milk

稀饭 Rice porridge

白饭 Plain white rice

油饭 Glutinous oil rice

糯米饭 Glutinous rice

卤肉饭 Braised pork rice

蛋炒饭 Fried rice with egg

地瓜粥 Sweet potato congee

馄饨面 Wonton noodles

刀削面 Sliced noodles

麻辣面 Spicy hot noodles

麻酱面 Sesame paste noodles

鸭肉面 Duck with noodles

鳝鱼面 Eel noodles

乌龙面 Seafood noodles

榨菜肉丝面 Pork , pickled mustard green noodles

牡蛎细面 Oyster thin noodles

板条 Flat noodles

米粉 Rice noodles

炒米粉 Fried rice noodles

冬粉 Green bean noodle

鱼丸汤 Fish ball soup

贡丸汤 Meat ball soup

蛋花汤 Egg vegetable soup

蛤蜊汤 Clams soup

牡蛎汤 Oyster soup

紫菜汤 Seaweed soup

酸辣汤 Sweet sour soup

馄饨汤 Wonton soup

糖葫芦 Tomatoes on sticks

长寿桃 Longevity Peaches

芝麻球 Glutinous rice sesame balls

麻花 Hemp flowers

六、糕点

春卷 Spring rolls

蛋卷 Chicken rolls

碗糕 Salty rice pudding

筒仔米糕 Rice tube pudding

红豆糕 Red bean cake

绿豆糕 Bean paste cake

糯米糕 Glutinous rice cakes

萝卜糕 Fried white radish patty

芋头糕 Taro cake

肉圆 Taiwanese Meatball

水晶饺 Pyramid dumplings

肉丸 Rice-meat dumplings

豆干 Dried tofu